Ambiguities in Bible Morphology

Verbum tags every word of the biblical text with morphological information. In the vast majority of cases, these morphological tags are unambiguous. However, in some instances, the form of a word matches more than one case. For example, the phrase τὸ πνεῦ μα (to pneuma) can be nominative or accusative. Verbum allows you to see places where resources present more than one option.


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View Ambiguities in a Guide

View Ambiguities in a Resource


View Ambiguities in a Guide

  1. Open an Exegetical Guide.

    Enter the text you want to study.

    For example: Enter John 3:16.


    Note: Learn more about the Exegetical Guide.

  2. Select the word you want to study.

    Expand the Word by Word heading. Verbum displays your passage in the original language. Scroll down to the word entry or click the word in the text to navigate directly to the entry.

    For example: Select Οὕτως (Houtōs).


  3. Hover over the morphological ambiguity symbol.

    Beneath the lemma and gloss is the morphological information about the word. When the ± symbol appears between words, Verbum indicates that the word is tagged differently in some of your resources.

    For example: Verbum indicates that one resource tagged this word as an adverb and another resource tagged it as an adverb or adjective (which is linguistically possible based on the form).


    Note: If you don’t see the ± symbol, this means that you don’t own any resources that display different morphological tagging for this word in this location.


You can also see morphological ambiguities in the Old Testament (although the resources are different).

For example: In Exodus 1:2, benē (“sons”) has differing tags in various morphologies.


Open the Exegetical Guide in Verbum.


View Ambiguities in a Resource

Depending on your available resources, you can view morphological ambiguities as you read. 

Hover over a word. Verbum displays the morphological information in the popup at the bottom of the panel. If more than one tag fits the context, Verbum displays both options.




Right-click a word. Verbum displays the morphological tagging in the left-hand column of the Context Menu. If more than one tag fits the context, Verbum displays both options.


Note: You can also access a word’s morphological distribution across Scripture using the Morphology Charts Interactive.


See these Morphologically tagged resources in Verbum:

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: SESB 2.0 Version with Apparatus

Analytical Greek New Testament (Barbara and Timothy Friberg)

Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 28th Ed., with Morphology

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